I recently enabled Windows Firewall on an unused server via GPO, but forgot to include the inbound RDP exception. This, of course, kicked me off my RDP session.
Rather than wait ~90 minutes for my revised GPO to take effect, I found that I could trigger a GPUpdate remotely using WMI (WinRM wasn’t enabled, and I didn’t want to use PSExec)
The following command does the trick:
Invoke-WmiMethod -Class Win32_Process -Name Create -ArgumentList "gpupdate.exe" -ComputerName <computername>